III Etap – DC 2023

OGÓLNOPOLSKI  KONKURS WIEDZY O KANADZIE
„DISCOVER CANADA 2023”

III ETAP – FINAŁ

16-17 marca 2023 w Żorach

Finał konkursu składa się z dwóch części; uczniowie odpowiadają na pytania/zagadnienia konkursowe oraz przedstawiają prezentację multimedialną przed Komisją konkursową, na zasadach akademickich (niepublicznie).

  1. Egzamin ustny – uczeń odpowiada na 2 wylosowane pytania. 
  2. Prezentacja multimedialna na poniższy temat (10 minut).

Najlepsza prezentacja zostanie, po ogłoszeniu wyników, powtórzona przed publicznością.

W przygotowaniu do konkursu pomogą uczniom materiały z podanej wcześniej bibliografii oraz sugerowanych stron internetowych (również z poprzednich lat konkursu), jak też inne wiarygodne źródła.


Prezentacja multimedialna

CANADIAN WAYS OF DEALING WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

In the recent decade Canadians across the country have been severely impacted by climate change and experienced unprecedented extreme weather conditions that have led to disastrous consequences: damaging storms, heat events, raging wildfires, and floods. The causes of climate change are well documented: industrialization, pollution of air, water and soil, deforestation and, in general, the national and global emphasis on “economy over environment.” Scientists have been raising the alarm for some time. The Canadian government has been taking measures to protect the environment by signing diverse agreements, developing programs and trying to take a leading role in this area globally. The environmental movement in the country has also made gains through various negotiations, agreements and activities. Moreover, the demand for environmental protection and climate justice has been mobilizing arts communities. Writers, filmmakers, musicians, and visual and performance artists of diverse backgrounds have been engaged in environmental activism through their artistic interventions. Finally, the Indigenous people living in Canada have been continuing a decades-long fight to protect their land and future, protesting against harmful government policies, teaching their post-anthropocentric land-based and relation-based philosophies and offering artistic interventions to support/explore their views.

Discuss the topic taking into consideration examples, arguments, policies or ideas from ONE of the following categories:

1) a. Canadian government environmental policies and legislation.

  b. The role and activities of the environmental movement in Canada.

2) Canadian arts addressing environmental destruction, protection and climate change.

3) Indigenous cultures in Canada, their ideas on the environment as inscribed in Indigenous philosophies and/or land-based knowledges, and their role in the protection of the environment.

In this presentation you are expected to consider some of the following questions/problems, depending on the aspect of the topic you select to discuss.

ad 1) Provide examples of the historically changing Canadian government policies related to the topic. Focus on the most recent developments. What is Canada’s role in the promotion of global environmental protection and sustainability?  Reflect on Canada’s path to reducing CO2 emissions and tackling global climate change. Reflect on the reasons for Canada’s bad reputation on climate change even though it has been a major world player in the field of environmental protection. Why did Canada decide to pull out of the Kyoto Protocol in 2011? What are the main reasons why countries hesitate to commit to multilateral environmental agreements? What climate change initiatives have been undertaken at the provincial level? Reflect on the revenue-neutral carbon tax, cap-and-trade, and Green Investment Fund. Focusing on the Arctic, what is the Northern Strategy and its priority areas related to Canada’s climate change politics? In terms of fighting global climate change, what has changed since the Liberals took over in 2015? How different is Justin Trudeau’s strategy from that of Stephen Harper? Is it very different after all? Discuss major initiatives of the environmental movement in Canada in recent decades.

ad 2) Reflect on the questions of art as activism and of eco-art. Give examples of artistic projects addressing climate issues and environmental justice, aimed at bringing about social and political change. How do artists of diverse backgrounds, including writers, photographers and filmmakers, respond to/examine the current environmental crisis? What aspects of the problem are of primary interest to them? What artistic strategies do they use? How do they respond to government environmental policies, if at all? Choose 2-3 artists to focus on in discussing the topic.

ad 3) What are the contributions of Indigenous peoples to the protection of the environment? How does their knowledge inform them how to practically take care of the environment in which they live? How do Indigenous cultures understand the concept of “land”? Provide examples of Indigenous protests against Canadian legislation that has harmful effects on the environment. What are the major aspects of Indigenous philosophies and knowledges as related to the land and people? Note that Indigenous philosophies are place-based, related to specific cultures, but there are some common features of Indigenous philosophies shared by all Indigenous people. How do you understand the concept of post-anthropocentric land-based and relation-based philosophies? What kind of solutions do Indigenous people provide for the current environmental crisis? Reflect on the concept of love, kindness and responsibility towards the natural world as inscribed in Indigenous philosophies and worldviews. Examine two artistic projects related to this topic. Do you think that “Indigenous cultures hold the keys to sustaining our planet”?

The above questions are only suggestions. You are encouraged to do research and offer your own perspective on this theme,  as well as to select examples of projects different from those given in the suggested study materials.


Zagadnienia do egzaminu ustnego    

1 Reflect on the changing notions of Canadian nationhood as constructed by politicians and writers. Identify the signifiers of Canadianness proposed by Northrop Frye, Margaret Atwood and Hugh MacLennan. Consult E. Sojka’s “Introduction” to (De)Constructing Canadianness. Myth of the Nation and Its Discontents.  
2 What is the significance of  the Multiculturalism Act of 1988-Bill 93, the Act for the Preservation and Enhancement of Multiculturalism in Canada,  in the history of evolving Canadian nationhood? Why did  several groups of  writers,  artists and intellectuals question  Canadian multicultural policies? Discuss the arguments against the early policies of the Multiculturalism Act of 1988.  
3 Discuss the myth of heroic,  benevolent and upright Mounties  as it was constructed in  popular Canadian literature and film. What features of Canadianness do the RCMP officers reveal in the dominant culture representations of the police force?  
4 Heritage Minutes is a project of nation-building which aims at presenting a specific vision of Canadianness. Identify it and point out the major general characteristics of this national project.  Point to parodies of the Heritage Minutes in such Canadian television programs as “This Hour Has 22 Minutes” or “Royal Canadian Air Farce” ( you may consult an article by Katarzyna Rukszto: “Up for Sale. The Commodification of Canadian Culture”).  
5 Discuss the role of landscape painting in the formation of specific narratives of Canadianness. Identify the features of Canadianness as  promoted by the Group of Seven.  Reflect on the problematic nature of  some of these conceptualizations.  Are you familiar with any parodies of the Group of Seven paintings?    
6 Discuss the role of geography in the formation of identity.   Reflect on the statement that  “Canadianness was defined by way of northerness and wilderness.”  Consider the attitudes of Indigenous people to nature and contrast them with the settler culture perceptions of northerness and wilderness.  
7 What is an Indian Act? What kind of impact does it have on the lives of Indigenous peoples in Canada?  What does the Idle No More Movement and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada  tell us about the present state of dialogue between both cultures?  
8 Discuss the role of heritage sites in the process of constructing Canadian identity and values. Choose two heritage sites that you consider most crucial for this process.  
9 Discuss  Canada’s role in international peacekeeping operations and conflict resolution.  
10 Discuss the impact of minority cultures in shaping Canadian culture by providing three examples of different artists, writers, politicians or other representatives of three minority cultures who have become influential figures in Canada.
11 Discuss selected contributions of  Indigenous people to the culture of Canada (e.g. artists,  filmmakers, writers, etc.). Choose two examples.  
12 Discuss the involvement of  Indigenous people in WWI & WWII.  
13 Discuss the changing immigration policies of Canada and show whether they correspond with the changing notions of  Canadian nationhood.  
14 Canada’s strong presence in the Arctic today is due in large part to the contributions of the Inuit who continue to inhabit the North.  Show the contributions of  the Inuit people to the culture of Canada (film, literature or music).  
15 Discuss the contribution of the Polish diaspora writers to Canadian literature – select two examples.  
16 Why is WWI considered to be one of the most significant events in Canadian history?  
17 Discuss the importance of museums and galleries in defining or being reflective of Canada’s heritage and identity. Choose 2-3 examples of these institutions to examine the topic.
18 Discuss the role of Aboriginal artists in the Canadian arts world. Select two artists to examine the topic.  
19 Select  two Canadian Aboriginal paintings (or the work of two Aboriginal artists)  and discuss their distinctive qualities as  contrasted with the national visual art project of the Group of Seven painters.
20 What are the Canadian values as constructed by politicians,  artists and philosophers?  Choose one area of Canadian culture,  be it literature,  film,  television,  visual arts,  music,  sports,   popular culture,  history or  politics,  and examine how  Canadian values have been inscribed,  advocated, reflected,  examined, or challenged  and exposed in  the selected work,  discourses or projects.
21 Discuss the  contributions of  a selected  minority group to Canadian  culture (African, Chinese,  Japanese, Polish,  German,  Mennonite, etc.).  You can choose to discuss the accomplishments of  politicians,  scientists,  artists,  etc.  
22 How did the settlers understand the concept of “treaty” and what was the Indigenous view on treaties?  Discuss select problems related to treaties between aboriginal people and the government of Canada in the past and at present.  
23 Public museums are the primary places of producing national identity.  Discuss the role of museums in the constructions of narratives of Canadianness.  For your discussion, choose two examples of museums (e.g. Canadian Museum of Nature,  Canadian Museum of History, Canada Agriculture and Food Museum,  National Gallery of Canada, Canada Science and Technology Museum, Canadian War Museum,  Canadian Museum of Civilization,  etc.).  Reflect on the mission of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights  (2014) that is “not only a national hub for human rights learning and discovery, but a new era of global human rights leadership.”  
24 Residential schools in Canada were perceived by the Canadian government as a tool of civilizing the Aboriginal population. Discuss the problem of residential schooling and its legacy.

General questions

One set of questions will relate to various aspects of Canadian culture, geography, literature, arts, politics, film, music, etc. which the candidate finds most interesting / attractive / appealing.

For instance:
Which Canadian city, region, province, territory, politician, historical figure, artist, writer, filmmaker , film, actor, painter, painting, musician, composer, singer, sportsman, etc. do you find most important/ engaging / interesting/ impressive/ appealing / compelling, when you look at them as representing/ constructing/ challenging or questioning selected narratives/ mythologies of Canadianness? Candidates are expected to show an awareness of the changing nature of national narratives.

Substantiate your response with a brief description of distinctive features of your selection and fully justify the reasons for your choice. Candidates are not required to possess a detailed knowledge of facts to support their opinions but will need to demonstrate critical thinking skills in the process of justifying them.

Examples of questions:

  • Name your favourite Canadian historical figure and show his/her role in the history of building /shaping Canadian values. 
  • Discuss a selected Canadian film or the work of a filmmaker that made the biggest impression on you and show how it inscribes itself in the project of Canadianness – either constructing or questioning it.
  • What Canadian writer does appeal to you the most and why? Why would you recommend his / her writing to your friend? What is Canadian about the writing? Does this question relating to nationhood matter at all?

Websites to consult for multimedia presentation

Canadian government  environmental policies and legislation.  Also – the role and activities of the environmental movement

Strengthening the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999
https://www.canada.ca/en/services/environment/pollution-waste-management/strengthening-canadian-environmental-protection-act-1999.html

Environment and Climate Change Canada
https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change.html
https://www.canada.ca/en/services/environment/weather/climatechange/pan-canadian-framework/introduction.html#1_2

Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change: Pillars of the Framework
https://www.canada.ca/en/services/environment/weather/climatechange/pan-canadian-framework/introduction.html#1_2 

Species at risk
https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/species-risk-education-centre/fact-sheets/parks-canada.html

Protecting Canada’s Fresh water  https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/corporate/transparency/consultations/protecting-canada-fresh-water.html

Environmental movement in Canada
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/environmental-and-conservation-movements 
https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/environment

Indigenous cultures hold the keys to sustaining our planet. At COP15, will we finally be listening?
https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-indigenous-cultures-hold-the-keys-to-sustaining-our-planet-at-cop15/  

United Nations Biodiversity Conference COP15 / CP-MOP10 / NP-MOP4 Montreal, Canada, 7-19 December 2022 https://www.cbd.int/conferences/2021-2022   
The Government of Canada increases nature protection ambition to address dual crises of biodiversity loss and climate change
Canada to ensure that more than $1B of its climate finance addresses the twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss
Government of Canada announces $340 million to support Indigenous-led conservation
Canada invests $796 million to collaborate with provinces, territories, and other partners to protect nature across the country
Government of Canada invests $130 million to work with partners to create a network of national urban parks

This is the world’s most destructive oil operation—and it’s growing  (Alberta’s oil sands, Canada) https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/04/alberta-canadas-tar-sands-is-growing-but-indigenous-people-fight-back/ 

 
Canadian arts addressing environment destruction,  protection and climate change

How the arts might help us grapple with climate change
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/whatonearth/how-the-arts-might-help-us-grapple-with-climate-change-1.5678348

How documentaries seek to bring climate change stories to life
https://www.cbc.ca/news/entertainment/our-planet-climate-change-documentary-david-attenborough-1.5178420

Environmental perspectives – documentaries
https://www.nfb.ca/subjects/environment-and-conservation/environmental-perspectives/

Environment and conservation  – documentaries https://www.nfb.ca/subjects/environment-and-conservation/

5 Canadian artists addressing Canada’s increasingly threatened landscapes
https://canadiangeographic.ca/articles/5-canadian-artists-addressing-canadas-increasingly-threatened-landscapes/

Environmental Activism Through the art of Joyce Wieland
https://www.aci-iac.ca/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Joyce-Wieland_Environmental-Activism_ACI-Teacher-Resource-Guide.pdf
 
Defending the Arctic Refuge
https://niche-canada.org/2022/12/09/defending-the-arctic-refuge-introducing-a-public-history-website/
https://defendingthearcticrefuge.com/photographers_and_filmmakers/
 
Manufactured Landscapes
https://www.nfb.ca/film/manufactured_landscapes_edu/

Art Installation Depicts the consequences of climate change https://environmentjournal.ca/art-installation-depicts-the-consequences-of-climate-change/

How environmental anxiety can motivate us to make change https://thewalrus.ca/the-walrus-talks-at-home-youth-and-the-climate-crisis/ 

 
Indigenous cultures in Canada,  their ideas on the environment as inscribed in Indigenous philosophies and/or knowledges,  and their role in the protection of the environment
Indigenous Knowledges and Climate Change
https://climateatlas.ca/indigenous-knowledges-and-climate-change

 

Indigenous Knowledge and the Future of Science
https://thewalrus.ca/indigenous-knowledge-and-the-future-of-science/

Indigenizing Philosophy through the Land: On the Nature of the Concept
https://politicaltheology.com/indigenizing-philosophy-through-the-land-on-the-nature-of-the-concept/

Water Teaching with Edna Manitowabi
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lxmUjpkgnBw

Meryl McMaster:
As Immense as the Sky
https://canadianart.ca/essays/as-immense-as-the-sky/
https://connect2canada.com/meryl-mcmaster-as-immense-as-the-sky/
 
Lindsay Dobbin – performing the land (music and movement) http://www.lindsaydobbin.com

Dancing the Land  – contemporary dancers
https://nac-cna.ca/en/video/series/dancing-the-land

Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptan
https://lawrencepaulyuxweluptun.com/assets/Land_Spirit_Power.pdf

Indigenous knowledge points the way
https://climateinstitute.ca/indigenous-knowledge-points-the-way/
 
Wood Mountain Walk and the Possibilities of Decolonization through Relationships with People and Land in Solo Walking Performance Ken Wilson, Canadian Theatre Review, Volume 182, Spring 2020, pp. 51-56 (article)

Deborah Mcgregor,Indigenous Women, Water Justice and Zaagidowin (Love)”,  Canadian Woman Studies, vol 30 (2,3),  pp. 71-78 (article)

Gwich’in Women Speak
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZWI3VW4CKU&t=14s&ab_channel=mihoaida

The Sacred Relationship
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NxBzyZ-8a4&ab_channel=NCSAVideoChannel

How is Climate Change impacting Indigenous Communities in remote regions of Canada 
https://bifrostonline.org/how-is-climate-change-impacting-indigenous-communities-in-remote-regions-of-canada/
Kahsatstenhsera: Indigenous Resistance to Tar Sands Pipelines
https://vimeo.com/76546858

Indigenous rights 'serious obstacle’ to Kinder Morgan pipeline, report say
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/true-north/2017/oct/16/indigenous-rights-serious-obstacle-to-kinder-morgan-pipeline-report-says

What you need to know about the Coastal GasLink pipeline conflict
https://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/wet-suwet-en-coastal-gaslink-pipeline-1.5448363

Websites to consult for exam questions

You are advised to consult academic publications and reliable online sources, as well as websites from earlier competitions.

Canadian Encyclopedia online

Canadian film encyclopedia

First Peoples of Canada

Residential schools

Indigenous activism

Immigration to Canada

Canadian values

WWI & WWII – Indigenous people and their involvement in the Wars:

Treaties with Indigenous people in Canada:

Aboriginal arts, worldviews and philosophies, and the concept of land:

Canadian writers of Polish diaspora:

(De)Constructing Narratives of Canadianness:

  • Eugenia Sojka, “(De)Constructing Narratives of Canadianness: Political, Naturalistic, Cultural and Popular Culture Nationalisms. Introduction.” In: (De)Constructing Canadianness. Myth of the Nation and Its Discontents. ed. Eugenia Sojka, Katowice: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Śląsk, 2007, 7-20.
  • Eugenia Sojka, “(De)constructing Canadian identities in selected 20th century arts and interarts projects” in: Exploring Canadian Identities/Vers l’exploration des identites canadiennes, Ewa Welnic and Anna Branach-Kallas (eds.), Toruń: Nicolas Copernicus University Press, 2002, 241-249.

On Heritage Minutes:

  • Katarzyna Rukszto: “Up for Sale. The Commodification of Canadian Culture.” In: (De)Constructing Canadianness. Myth of the Nation and Its Discontents. ed. Eugenia Sojka, Katowice: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Śląsk, 2007, 77-83.

Poniższe artykuły/rozdziały z akademickich publikacji są do pobrania z kursu: „Konkurs – DC 2023 – ETAP 3”, po zalogowaniu na swoje konta indywidualne na platformie Discover Canada

  • Wood Mountain Walk and the Possibilities of Decolonization through Relationships with People and Land in Solo Walking Performance, Ken Wilson, Canadian Theatre Review, Volume 182, Spring 2020, pp. 51-56
  • Eugenia Sojka, “(De)Constructing Narratives of Canadianness: Political, Naturalistic, Cultural and Popular Culture Nationalisms. Introduction.” In: (De)Constructing Canadianness. Myth of the Nation and Its Discontents. ed. Eugenia Sojka, Katowice: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Śląsk, 2007, pp. 7-20.
  • Eugenia Sojka, “(De)constructing Canadian identities in selected 20th century arts and interarts projects” in: Exploring Canadian Identities/Vers l’exploration des identites canadiennes, Ewa Welnic and Anna Branach-Kallas (eds.), Toruń: Nicolas Copernicus University Press, 2002, pp. 241-249.
  • Deborah Mcgregor, “Indigenous Women, Water Justice and Zaagidowin (Love)”, Canadian Woman Studies, vol 30 (2,3), pp. 71-78